Last updated: Tuesday, 27, July, 2010
CausesAppropriate Tests

Chemical injury/foreign body

Pathology tests not appropriate.


For persistent or recurrent infection: conjunctival swab/fluid - microscopy and culture for bacteria and chlamydia, virus detection and culture.

See also Keratoconjunctivitis.

Viral infection, especially

  • Adenovirus

Bacterial infection, especially

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Other infection

  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Candida albicans


If indicated: conjunctival smear - microscopy (for eosinophils); skin prick allergen testing; allergen specific immunoglobulin E if skin prick tests are contraindicated or unavailable.


The diagnosis is based on the clinical appearance of the lesions; biopsy is only indicated if the diagnosis is unclear.