HTLV-I/HTLV-II infection

Last updated: Monday, 13, December, 2010
Key InformationAppropriate Tests
HTLV-I/II antibodies with confirmation of positive results by western blot.
Transmission

Mother to child

Sexual

See Sexually transmitted diseases

Intravenous drug use

Blood products

Routine HTLV-I/II antibody testing of blood, semen and tissue donors. See Blood transfusion
Associated disease
HTLV-I

Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma

FBC; calcium; bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy with immunophenotyping, molecular genetics.

Skin biopsy of affected area.

Tropical spastic paraparesis

HTLV-I associated myelopathy

CSF examination may be normal or show slight protein elevation with increased mononuclear cells.

Chronic progressive myelopathy

HTLV-II

Occasional cases of spastic paraparesis and myelopathy have been associated with HTLV-II infection.