Last updated: Friday, 06, August, 2010
ComplicationsAppropriate Tests

Influenza A or B infection

For rapid diagnosis, influenza virus antigen.

If clinically severe and if the diagnosis is uncertain: influenza virus antibodies.

If a new epidemic is suspected: virus detection, culture -  sputum, throat gargle, throat swab or nasopharyngeal aspirate.

Viral isolation early in the course of an epidemic may help achieve prompt control in the community (immunisation, prophylaxis).

Parainfluenza infection

Bacterial pneumonia, especially

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes