Last updated: Friday, 24, December, 2010
Many of these disorders present as rickets in the paediatric age group. Calcium, phosphate, albumin, ALP.
Bone biopsy (sometimes with double tetracycline labelling), if confirmation is required.
Vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin D (25-hydroxy).
Lack of sunlight exposure
Disordered vitamin D metabolism
Vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxy).
Chronic Renal failure
Vitamin D dependent rickets
Phosphate - serum, creatinine - serum .
Phosphate - urine, creatinine - urine, with calculation of fractional excretion of phosphate.
Increased phosphate loss
Drug induced, especially
Bone biopsy with measurement of toxic metal; consult pathologist.
See Lead poisoning
Mineralisation defects (inherited)
ALP; amino acids (ethanolamine phosphate) - urine.
Molecular genetics for diagnosis and family studies.