Last updated: Tuesday, 21, December, 2010
CausesAppropriate Tests

Clinical assessment, including age, gender, presence of systemic disease.

See also Bone fracture - pathological.


Investigation may be appropriate to demonstrate increased bone loss prior to the development of clinical disease in high risk patients; to establish the diagnosis of osteoporosis; to monitor efficacy of treatment.

Investigation may include bone density measurement and diagnostic imaging; calcium, phosphate, albumin, vitamin D, ALP; urine - calcium, creatinine, collagen crosslink fragments or hydroxyproline with hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio.

Collagen crosslink fragments are more specific for bone resorption than hydroxyproline.


Bone loss commences prior to the menopause.

Cushing's syndrome

See Cushing's syndrome.


See Hyperthyroidism.

Multiple myeloma

See Multiple myeloma.

Gonadal hypofunction 

See AmenorrhoeaTesticular failure.


See Alcoholism.


See Malabsorption.

Chronic metabolic acidosis, especially 

Bone may also show osteomalacia/rickets and effects of hyperparathyroidism.

Juvenile osteoporosis


Disuse atrophy

Sudeck's atrophy

Paget's disease of bone

See Paget's disease of the bone.