Urine microscopy and culture.
For first infections in women, urine microscopy and culture may not always be necessary before antibiotic treatment is commenced. If a urine sample is turbid and urinalysis reveals a positive leucocyte esterase test with or without a positive nitrite test, infection can be diagnosed presumptively.
When urinary tract infection is suspected in males, young girls or women with a history of previous infection, urine microscopy and culture should be done.
Urine may be collected as a midstream specimen, by needling an indwelling catheter or by suprapubic aspiration (children).
Urinary tract obstruction including prostatic enlargement can be a predisposing factor.
See also Urethritis and Prostatitis