SLE

Last updated: Saturday, 05, February, 2011
PresentationAppropriate Tests

Diagnosis is based on defined clinical and pathological criteria which include positive antinuclear antibodies and/or positive antibodies to double stranded DNA.

Rheumatoid factor and extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (especially the presence of Sm Antibody) assist to differentiate SLE from other systemic rheumatic diseases.

Disease activity may be monitored by FBC, ESR; and in some patients complement components C3 and C4 and levels of double stranded DNA antibodies.

Creatinine, urea, AST, ALT and CRP may assist to define the extent of disease and complications; lupus inhibitor and cardiolipin antibodies may also predict complications of disease.

Systemic features

Fever

Malaise

Weight loss

Musculoskeletal

Arthritis - polyarticular

Myalgia

Myopathy

Skin and mucous membranes

Rash, especially

Alopecia

Oral ulcers

Raynaud's phenomenon

Lupus band test - skin, may be useful to differentiate between discoid and systemic lupus

 

 

 


See under Cold related disorders

Renal

Glomerulonephritis

Nephrotic syndrome

Renal biopsy, if indicated.

Haematological

Autoimmune haemolysis

Neutropenia

Lymphocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombosis

 

Direct antiglobulin test.
See Haemolysis

 

 


APTT, lupus inhibitor; cardiolipin antibodies, Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies.

Coagulation factor inhibitor

APTT, PT; coagulation factor inhibitors.

Abortion - habitual

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

Cardiopulmonary

Pericarditis

Myocarditis

Endocarditis

Pleurisy

Intestitial lung disease

Neurological

Organic brain syndrome

  • Psychiatric disturbance
  • Convulsions

Stroke (cerebral thrombosis)

Neuropathy

 

No pathology test reliably detects risk.

 


APTT, lupus inhibitor; cardiolipin antibodies, Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies.

Drug induced lupus, due to

  • Hydralazine
  • Procainamide
  • Isoniazid