Last updated: Saturday, 13, November, 2010
CausesAppropriate Tests

In acute exacerbations: sputum - microscopy and culture (occasionally bronchial brushings, lavage). Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are particularly important pathogens in this setting. Blood culture in severely ill patients with radiological evidence of pneumonia.

Cystic fibrosis

Post-infection eg,

  • Staphylococcal pneumonia
  • Pertussis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles

Local obstruction eg,

  • Foreign body
  • Bronchial tumour
Sputum cytology, bronchial brush, wash; lesion biopsy.
See Lung lesion


Immunoglobulins G, A, M

Immotile cilia syndrome eg,

  • Kartagener's syndrome

Tests of cilial function - consult pathologist. Nasal biopsy, including EM for assessment of ciliary morphology.