Last updated: Monday, 05, April, 2004
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Urine: voided urine is the collection method of choice for screening for urological disease.
Catheterised specimens: may be submitted if clinically indicated.
Bladder washings: if clinically indicated this method of collection may be superior to voided urine.
Brushings: a disposable or non-disposable brush may be introduced through a cystoscope.
Laboratory preparation methods vary and include cytocentrifugation, membrane filter preparations and monolayer preparations.
Examined with Papanicolaou staining and microscopy.
Detection of inflammatory lesions including specific infections, urinary crystal and calculi disease, iatrogenic changes and neoplasms of the urinary tract.
Clinical information is essential as instrumentation and the presence of urinary tract stones may result in cytologic changes that mimic malignancy.
Presence of malignancy recorded. Interpretation of low grade urothelial neoplasms may be problematic due to benign mimics and minimal nuclear change.
In females interpretation may be limited by contamination of cells from the lower genital tract.
McKee G. In: Gray W and McKee GT eds. Diagnostic Cytopathology. 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone 2003.
Kern WH. In: Bibbo M. Comprehensive Cytopathology. 2nd ed. WB Saunders 1997.