Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes

Last updated: Thursday, 22, April, 2004

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Item Process

5 mL blood in plain or lithium heparin tube.


Electrophoresis. Other methods are not reliable.

Reference Interval

Consult laboratory.


Occasionally required for identification of the tissue source of increased LD.


LD1 is predominant in myocardial infarction, haemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis (especially megaloblastic anaemia), renal infarction, some malignancies (eg, teratoma), chronic muscle destruction (eg, Duchenne muscular dystrophy).

LD2 or LD3 predominate in malignancy, infectious mononucleosis, platelet destruction (eg, ITP).

LD5 predominates in liver and skeletal muscle disease.

See also Pleural/pericardial fluid examination and Peritoneal fluid (and washings) examination.


von Eyben FE. Clin Biochem 2001; 34(6): 441-454.