Manganese - blood

Last updated: Monday, 22, March, 2004

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Item Process

5 mL blood in lithium heparin tube.

Manganese-free containers must be used and the skin must be washed carefully prior to venepuncture.


Atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Reference Interval

140-220 nmol/L.

ApplicationSuspected manganese toxicity (extrapyramidal features) in a patient with a history of possible exposure - miners, steelworkers, pigment workers. See also Heavy metals - urine.

The commonest cause of elevated blood manganese is contamination of the specimen by manganese compounds in the environment and contaminating the skin and blood collection equipment.

Toxicity is not seen with slight elevations; occurs in occupational exposure and chronic liver disease.

Clinical disease due to manganese deficiency has not been convincingly demonstrated in humans.


Levy BS and Nassetta WJ. Int J Occup Environ Health 2003; 9(2): 153-63.